Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

The Monastic Tradition and Spiritual Growth

Yesterday was the feast day of St. Benedict. St. Benedict wrote the Rule of St. Benedict, a document that outlines the parameters of the monastic life to be followed by the monastic tradition that he founded. A copy of the document was later sent to his sister Scholastica, a nun, to be used by her monastic community. After his death, the Rule of St. Benedict was adopted by other monastic communities, and thus the Benedictine Order of monks and nuns was born. Monasticism was present in the West prior to the time of Benedict; nonetheless, there was no universally accepted rule used by the monks, that is, each monastic community had its own way of life. The Rule of St. Benedict was the first time one saw in the West a particular manner of organizing and living out the monastic life becoming widespread among multiple monastic communities, so that they were united as one order. Since the Benedictines were highly influential in the evangelization of Europe in the early Middle Ages, the Benedictines were also highly influential in the spread of monasticism throughout the West.


With this in mind, I think it is good to present some quotes from some of the holy men of Christian monasticism – both of the East and the West – concerning the nature of repentance. One of the foundational texts of Eastern monasticism was The Sayings of the Desert Fathers. The father of monasticism was St. Anthony of Egypt, whose wisdom and strict asceticism inspired others to follow in his path. The monks of the early Church were held in such high regard that biographies were made of some of the more historically significant ones (i.e., St. Athanasius’s The Life of Antony, composed shortly after his death). Yet, most of the early Christian monks were considered fountains of wisdom. Many of their sayings were preserved and passed on, starting with St. Antony himself, and lasting for several centuries after his death. Starting with Antony, it became a common trend to record the sayings of prominent monks from a particular community, and eventually certain teachings from certain monks became popular among multiple communities. These sayings were eventually grouped together in a text known as The Sayings of the Desert Fathers, written by an anonymous scribe in the late A.D. 6th century. Throughout the Middle Ages, this text became popular throughout both the Eastern and Western Church.

Continue reading “The Monastic Tradition and Spiritual Growth”

Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

St. Patrick and the Future of Christendom (a.k.a., “Once The Green Confetti Has Settled Down”)

Yesterday was the Feast Day of St. Patrick. As many may know, St. Patrick – also known as the Apostle to the Irish or the Enlightener of Ireland – was the first Catholic religious leader to spread the Gospel to Ireland. As we celebrate the life of this great saint, let us first mediate upon certain implications of his life and his significance for our time.

Continue reading “St. Patrick and the Future of Christendom (a.k.a., “Once The Green Confetti Has Settled Down”)”

Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

Martyrdom, Penance and the Meaning of Lent

Ah, most valiant and blessed martyrs! Truly you are called and chosen for the glory of Jesus Christ our Lord! And anyone who exalts, honors and worships His Glory should read for the consolation of the Church these new deeds of heroism which are no less significant than the deeds of old. For these new manifestations of virtue bear witness to one and the same Spirit Who still operates, and to God the Father Almighty, to His Son Jesus Christ our Lord, to Whom is splendor and immeasurable power for all the ages. Amen. [1]

The Martyrdom of Perpetua and Felicitas


I think it is very fitting that yesterday, the second day of Lent, we celebrate the Feast Day of Sts. Perpetua and Felicity. St. Perpetua was born in the late A.D. 2nd century to a rich family of Roman nobles from Carthage in North Africa. Perpetua came from a mixed family, with her mother being a Christian and her father a pagan. In the year A.D. 203, when Perpetua was still a young woman, she converted to the religion of her mother. Perpetua also converted to the Christian faith a slave owned by her family, Felicitas (better known in English as Felicity), as well as a group of others who knew her. Shortly thereafter, the Roman emperor Severus started a persecution of Christians, and it wasn’t long before the Christians in Perpetua’s community were subject to such persecution.


Perpetua was eventually arrested, and sentenced to death, refusing the entire time to reject her Christian faith. Her slave Felicity was arrested and sentenced to death with her. Felicity was pregnant, and gave birth in jail, but Felicity was sentenced to death shortly thereafter.


The acts of the martyrs – that is, texts that described the life and death of famous martyrs – were popular texts in the early Church. The story of the martyrdom of Sts. Perpetua and Felicity were of particular influence in the early Church. The story of their martyrdom was frequently read during liturgies. [2] Their was a particular devotion to them in the Church of Rome, and they were some of the saints commemorated in the Canon of the Mass (the main Eucharistic prayers of the Roman Rite). [3]

Continue reading “Martyrdom, Penance and the Meaning of Lent”

Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

Ash Wednesday Meditation

Today is Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent. As we spiritually prepare for Easter, let us look at two Scripture verses, one of which diagnoses the current state of the human condition, the other of which provides the solution.


The first is derived from Genesis 3:19, when God, after punishing mankind for the Fall, says, “For ye are dust, and to dust ye shall return.” The condition of mankind after the Fall is marked by a turn away from God. And this reality is used to address a wide variety of questions, including, “How can an entity as sinful as man be created by a morally perfect being such as God?” or “How can life-giving forces and forces that give way to destruction both be so fundamental to the human condition?” The Christian understanding has always been that the way things are, is not the way things should be or were intended to be. God created man in a state of grace, which is the source of life and union with God. Through sin, we fell from such a state. It is for this reason that in the creation story, as well as in post-Biblical theological contemplation, death is often associated with sin, at least symbolically, if not also metaphysically – just as death is a return to non-existence, likewise sin is a turning away from God, Who is the source of all being.  Death, decay and the proclivity towards destruction were often seen as signs or expressions of the corruption brought about by sin.


The human condition is thus marked by the privation of God’s grace, and therefore a lack of receptivity to the presence of the all-good and life-giving God. The Season of Lent thus begins with a recognition that this is the current state of the human race. Yet, Scripture not only tells us what the problem is, but also shows us the way out. St. Paul writes, in Romans 6:8, “Now if we died with Christ, we believe that we shall also live with Him.” To understand this verse, we need to understand two things. Firstly, mankind was estranged from God. What better way for the estrangement between God and man to be overcome than for God to become man? God became a participant in the things of man, therefore making it possible for man to become a participant in the things of God.

Continue reading “Ash Wednesday Meditation”

Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

Water and Wine: The Wedding at Cana as a Symbol for Repentance

In the readings for this week – the Second Sunday in Ordinary Times – one overarching theme is that of repentance. In the first reading – taken from Isaiah 62 – the prophet Isiah begins by saying,


For Zion’s sake I shall not remain silent, for Jerusalem’s sake I shall not remain quiet, until her vindication shines forth like the dawn and her victory like a burning torch. Nations shall behold your vindication, and all the kings your glory… (Isaiah 62:1-2)


This makes sense if we look at it in light of the previous chapter. The prophets often responded to periods of social and political corruption, decline in religious devotion, and other similar ills plaguing Ancient Israelite society. They saw the plights afflicting the People of Israel as a sign of God’s punishment. Yet contained within these fire-and-brimstone messages was the proclamation that God’s covenant with His people is never negated. Our fall into sin has everything to do with us turning away from or abandoning God, and nothing to do with God abandoning or turning away from us. In the previous chapter – chapter sixty-one – the Prophet Isaiah writes that he has been”anointed” by the Lord and that “the Spirit of the Lord is upon him,” that he may “bring good news to the afflicted…bind up the brokenhearted…proclaim liberty to captives, [and] release to prisoners.” (Isiah 61:1) The Prophet Isaiah asserts that God has sent him to “announce a year of favor from the Lord and a day of vindication by our God,” which will serve to “comfort all who mourn; to place on those who mourn in Zion a diadem instead of ashes, to give them the oil of gladness instead of mourning.” (Isaiah 61:2-3)


God’s judgment is real, but so is his mercy. The prophet Isaiah is thus proclaiming that if Israel repents of their sin, God will liberate them from all the forces that weakened or threatened to destroy them as a nation and end their suffering. How does this apply to us Catholics today? For those who repent of their sins – which necessarily includes recognizing the depravity of our sin and feeling sorrow for it – God will liberate us from the spiritual bondage of sin and the sorrow that results from it. By “sorrow” one can understand the negative effects of our sin, which the grace of God empowers us to overcome, or sorrow for our sins, which, since it leads to repentance and the acceptance of God’s mercy, gives way to joy.

Continue reading “Water and Wine: The Wedding at Cana as a Symbol for Repentance”

Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

Epiphany: The Glory of God Shining in Darkness

Epiphany: This word indicates the manifestation of the Lord, Who, as St. Paul tells us in the second reading (cf. Ephesians 3:6), makes Himself known to all nations … Yet if our God makes Himself known for everyone, it is even more surprising how He does so. … They will find Him, but not where they thought: not in the royal palace of Jerusalem, but in a humble abode in Bethlehem. We saw this paradox at Christmas. … Here is the surprise: God does not need the spotlights of the world to make Himself known.

-Pope Francis, sermon for the Feast of Epiphany,



These words from Pope Francis, spoken on the last major feast day of the Christmas Season, touch at the heart of Christianity. St. Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians, says that the notion that the Almighty God would die on the Cross is, for non-believers, a “stumbling block” and “non-sense.” But St. Paul says that for us believers, it is “the power of God.” This same mentality applies to all aspects of the life of Christ. Why should one expect to see the all-powerful, all-knowing, eternal God in a baby born to a poor family in a small desertous region? Yet, it is in this self-emptying of God in the Incarnation, and later through the Cross, that the power of God unto salvation is made manifest. This is what is signified by the story of the Magi – true believers are those who see Jesus as more than a man, but as God made man.


With this in mind, the first reading has a lot of levels of meaning to it pertaining to this theme and its practical implications. The first reading is taken from Isaiah 60:1-6. It begins by saying:


Arise! Shine, for your light has come, the glory of the Lord has dawned upon you. Though darkness covers the earth, and thick clouds, the peoples, upon you the Lord will dawn, and over you His glory will be seen. Nations shall walk by your light, kings by the radiance of your dawning. (Isaiah 60:1-3)


The prophecies here from the mouth of the Prophet Isaiah were spoken at a time in which the people of Israel were going through a period of hardship. What the Prophet Isaiah is saying is that God’s mercy is coming upon them. Amidst the spiritual darkness of that time, the light of God will shine upon the people of Israel, and as a result of this the people of Israel will shine to the nations, who will honor Israel.


One level of symbolism is that the people of Israel represent Jesus. Just as Israel, once reconciled with God, was the vessel of the light of God’s glory on earth, so too was Jesus the vessel of the light of the glory of the Father on earth. The light of the Father shines through the Son, who, by literally entering into the created realm, shines the light of God within the darkness of human sin. Yet, the whole point of the doctrine of the Incarnation is that the light of God not only shines in the darkness; it shines within the created realm in a manner that doesn’t, right off the bat, look any different than anything we see around us. Jesus didn’t look any different than other humans. There is no evidence that there was a visible, glowing circle or ring floating around His head; no sign that said, “I am the Messiah”; there was no direct perception of His Divinity. The Apostles saw brief glimpses of His true glory in events such as the Resurrection (and post-Resurrection appearances), the Ascension, and the Transfiguration. Yet, if the fullness of Jesus’ identity was perceived directly by all, then He would not have been rejected and killed.


Thus, Jesus is a light that shines in the darkness of human sin, but it is a light that can only be perceived by faith. And this makes more sense when we look at Isaiah’s prophesies in light of the Gospel reading. In the midst of physical darkness, the Magi were led to Jesus by the light of the star. The darkness represents the darkness of sin; the star represents God making Himself known to us, leading us to a knowledge of His Son, whereby God and man are reconciled, or it could represent faith, whereby we accept, assent to, or trust in God’s guidance. This parallels Isaiah 60:3 (“Nations shall walk by your light, kings by the radiance of your drawing.”) – just as even the Gentiles, those outside of the covenant, are led to God by the light of Israel, likewise the Magi, who were themselves Gentiles, are led to Jesus by the light of a star, which represents how we are led to Jesus by faith and the enlightening of our mind’s and heart’s by God’s grace, and Christ Himself, once we turn to Him, reveals Himself to be the light of God manifesting itself to us in an intimate manner. Further, the Israelites were a small nation on the edges of the Middle East. Yet, just as even the kings of powerful nations are guided to God by the shining example of Israel, so too with the Magi, who were members of the nobility who came to pay homage to, firstly, a young child, and secondly, a young child who was far from being a member of the nobility or holding any other position of power. This would have looked strange to most people. But, what this signifies is that, no matter how powerful we are, are are reliant on God’s grace and saving power, as manifested in Christ, to truly be all that God is calling us to be. For anyone, particularly those who are well endowed on a natural level – the wealthy, the intelligent, those whose lives are, in many ways going good – to admit that they do not live satisfying lives because of these things, but because of their utter dependence on Christ, looks no different than kings paying homage or even outright worshiping the young son of a carpenter. Modern society tells us that we don’t need Jesus or religion, that the whole endeavor is nothing more than an elaborate superstition. For even the poor or the marginalized to have faith in Jesus is absurd to the mind of modern man; it is not for those whose eyes are enlightened by the light of faith.


Yet, there is another level of meaning. If we take the symbolism surrounding the people of Israel in a more human fashion, as a group of people united by a common faith, a common mission or a common heritage, the people of Israel represent the Church. In some cases, that which we say about Jesus is intimately bound with what we say about the Church. In the second reading, taken from St. Paul’s letter to the Ephesians, it is written,


Because of this, I, Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus for you Gentiles – if, as I suppose, you have heard of the stewardship of God’s grace that was given to me for your benefit, [namely, that] the mystery was made known to me by revelation, as I have written briefly earlier. (Ephesians 3:1-3)


Here, St. Paul describes himself as “a prisoner of Christ Jesus for you Gentiles” – that is to say, he is one who has completely submitted Himself to Jesus, and one way of manifesting his complete submission to Jesus is by bringing others to Christ, and thus to salvation. He also describes himself as one given “the stewardship of God’s grace” – that is to say, a leader and guide of God’s people, by whose ministry people are opened to the grace of God. Jesus revealed Himself in an intimate way to St. Paul, thereby bringing about St. Paul’s conversion, and the inevitable result of this is that St. Paul is given the mission of converting others to Christ.


What has this to do with the larger message of Epiphany? Jesus is the light that shines in the darkness, the ONLY thing that can counteract the darkness of sin. The telos, the raison d’être, of the Church is to serve as the vessel by which Jesus’ mission is continued and perpetuated. Israel could thus represent Christ; the people of the world walking by the light of Israel could represent how people are led to God only by the light of Christ. Yet, the people of Israel may also represent the people of God, which in the New Testament is the Church; the nations of the world walking by the light of Israel may represent how the Church has a mission to shine the light of Christ upon all people, to spread or promulgate it to all people and places. The mission of the Church is the same mission which St. Paul and the other Apostles had: “to make everyone see what is the plan of the mystery hidden for ages in God Who created all things…” (Ephesians 3:9)


We seem to live in a world where the darkness is closing in on the light. Many people in this country claim to believe in Jesus, and identify as Christians. Yet, study after study show that the number of people going to Church is dwindling; adherence to an orthodox, Bible-based understanding of Christian or Catholic teaching, or the acceptance of the fullness of Catholic teaching, is also dwindling. The Church is riddled with scandal and corruption. But, note how it seemed as if the light had been extinguished, the forces of evil were victorious, when Jesus died on the Cross; yet, this was, in fact, a victory, not for the forces of evil, but over them. This was the archetype of all that was to come. Corruption, scandal and controversy has always been a part of the Church, even in New Testament times (see Acts 4:35 and Acts 5:1-10; see 1 Corinthians 11:17-34; 1 Corinthians 12-13; 1 Corinthians 6:1-11). The Church has also always been persecuted, also since New Testament times (Acts 7:54-60). Yet, no amount of corruption, no amount of persecution – no amount of evil – had been able to quench the Church. Jesus Himself said, “Remember that I have said to you, ‘A servant is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted Me, they will also persecute you.” (John 15:20) Yet, Jesus Himself goes on to say, “I have said these things to you, that in Me you might have peace. In the world you will have tribulation. But take heart; I have conquered the world.” (John 16:33) The light of Jesus that shines in the darkness is not merely a series of happy, fuzzy-sounding words that make us feel good. They are meant to bring peace, which is something more profoundly moving than merely happy emotions. What is the nature of this peace? It is hard to describe in a short space, but it is derived from the recognition that the light of Christ shines in the darkness. This does not mean that the darkness does not exist; what it means is that the darkness can never be more powerful than the light. And THIS is the meaning of Epiphany: by the eyes of faith, recognizing the light of Christ shining through in the darkness in victory over it.



  1. To read Pope Francis’ homily for Epiphany, see this link:
  2. To see the readings for Epiphany, see this link:
Theological Meditations, Uncategorized

Let The Dead Bury Their Dead: Matthew 8 and the New Year

I recently read Matthew 8. I believe that this text, in many ways, provides us with a good frame of mind within which to start the new year.


The text is made up primarily of stories of Jesus’ healing ministry, both of His physical healings (i.e., the miraculous healing of physical ailments or diseases) and spiritual ones (exorcisms). Yet, these healing stories are interrupted by two seemingly unrelated stories. The first is found in Matthew 8:18-22.  A scribe approaches Jesus and says he will follow Jesus wherever He goes, no matter what. Jesus responds, “Foxes have dens and birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has nowhere to rest His head.” One of Jesus’ disciples then approaches Jesus and says that he will devote himself full time to following Jesus, but only after he has buried his father. Jesus to this responds, “Follow me, and let the dead bury their dead.”

Continue reading “Let The Dead Bury Their Dead: Matthew 8 and the New Year”